Landscaping Designs


Landscaping Harrisburg PA designs are created by combining the soft elements of your garden with the hardscape, or non-living aspects. Effective landscaping design involves the use of basic design principles such as unity, balance, line, texture, and transition.Landscaping

Use straight lines sparingly in your landscape design to create a more organic look. Rounding out a paved pathway with grass or flowers creates a natural flow and adds visual appeal.

Color is one of the most noticeable aspects of landscape design. It can set the mood for a garden by evoking emotions and creating an atmosphere. It is usually among the last considerations for a designer after solving functional needs and creating movement in a space.

The first step in choosing colors for your garden is to understand the color wheel. It illustrates which colors contrast and which harmonize with each other, so you can choose the right colors for your design. Many landscape designers use the color wheel when laying out a planting plan, coloring in the plant material in place to see how it will look as it is installed.

A second consideration is the use of complementary colors in a design. Complementary colors are opposite each other on the color wheel and are thought to be pleasing because they highlight and intensify each other. Examples of complementary colors include red and yellow or green and purple.

Shades and tints of a color can also have an impact on your garden design. Shades are darker versions of a color created by adding black to it, while tints are lighter versions created by adding white to it. For example, pink is a tint of red, while maroon is a shade.

Another important aspect of using color in your garden is understanding the importance of scale and pacing. The use of large plants and trees to create a focal point can help balance smaller plantings around it. Likewise, the repetition of plants and colors in a small area can balance a larger space by making it feel more cohesive. However, this principle must be used carefully, as too much repetition can make a garden feel stale and dated.


The form of a landscape design refers to the shape and size of the plants and hardscape elements. It can be as simple as a geometric or freeform design. Geometric designs use clean lines and more organized forms, such as square hedges, walkways that run at straight or right angles, and symmetrical flowerbeds. Freeform designs, on the other hand, use more organic or natural forms like flowing walkways, meandering lines, and trees and shrubs that follow their own shapes and contours.

The proportional relationship of various landscape features in the design is important for balance and flow. Tall people and children perceive space differently, so it is essential to take this into consideration when planning your landscape design. Proportion also includes the relative size of different building structures, plant sizes, and areas of plantings compared to areas of hardscape.

The line is another major component of form. It can be real (actual) or perceived (implied). The lines in your yard affect how the eye moves through your landscape. Straight lines are structural and forceful, creating a formal character and guiding the eye to a focal point. Curved lines create a more relaxed, natural character and often lead the eye to hidden views.

Rhythm is the design principle that creates movement and flow in your landscape by using repetition and spacing. For example, using the same type of plant or lamp post in several places throughout your yard creates a rhythm that draws the eye. It’s important to note that repetition should not be overdone, or it can become monotonous. It is also a good idea to mix in some new elements to keep things interesting.


The line of a landscape is how you move your eye throughout the space. It can be curved, straight, diagonal, or even wavy. The lines of a design can be used to frame a view, draw attention to a specific part of the landscape, or create visual balance. It is important to consider all the different types of lines, as they can impact how you feel in the garden.

Unity, simplicity, variety, balance, sequence, and scale are all considered principles of design. They are the foundation of any landscape design. They guide the designer to create a balanced design and ensure it will work once installed. These principles are not only applied to plant selection but also to the hardscape features of a project.

The overall style of a landscape can be formal or informal. The design theme can be inspired by the architectural style of a home, or it can be more eclectic and juxtapose different styles. For example, a country cottage may be well-suited to a more naturalistic landscape design with soft lines and native plants, while a traditional brick home would be better served by a more formal style that uses clipped hedges of boxwoods or yuccas.

The line design principle can also be achieved by using repetition at a regular interval to create rhythm. For example, planting a row of perennials in front of a pathway can create a rhythmic effect with the repetitive form of each plant. This can make the pathway feel more organic and calming to the eye. The same principle can be accomplished with hardscape elements as well by repeating the vertical forms of structures such as fences or pillars.


While color and line tend to get the most attention, it’s important not to overlook texture when designing a landscape. Whether it’s plant foliage or hardscape elements, texture creates an eye-catching contrast that adds depth and excitement to any garden. The roughness or smoothness of the individual outlines of plant leaves, pavers, or other landscape materials is what defines texture. The textures of plants and materials are accentuated by light and shadow, so be sure to consider how they’ll appear from various angles.

The way we perceive a landscape’s texture is also influenced by distance. For example, a fern’s fine, feathery texture is obvious up close, but at a distance it takes on the appearance of a dense ground cover with a coarser texture. In addition, the branching structure of a tree or shrub can affect its texture. For example, tightly branched trees produce a heavy effect, while loosely branched ones like magnolias or hollies seem airy.

Contrasting textures also make for interesting combinations. For example, the wide leaves of mondograss look handsome next to broad-leaved heucheras, Carissa hollies, or oakleaf hydrangeas. Similarly, the rough surface of rock walls complements large-leaf hostas, Rhus typhina, or magnolias, while flagstone patios and entryways complemented by wrought iron fences are perfect for a more moderately textured planting.

Texture is a powerful element that can transform any landscape, adding interest to any planting and creating a sense of balance and harmony. By understanding the different aspects of landscape design, homeowners can enhance their properties by combining the best of each element to achieve a style that satisfies all their desires. Then, by incorporating these concepts into their landscaping projects, they can enjoy the benefits of a well-designed landscape—from curb appeal to personal wellbeing.


When designing a landscape, it is important to keep proportion in mind. Proportion refers to the overall size of a landscape and the size of individual components within it. Proper proportion creates a harmonious whole that is visually interesting and engaging. When a landscape fails to convey proper proportion, it may look unbalanced and chaotic.

A common way to achieve a good sense of proportion is through the use of transition. These design elements allow you to change the shape, size, and direction of a garden without destroying its harmony. For example, by using a variety of plants in different shapes and sizes, you can create a visual balance that is pleasing to the eye.

Color is another important element that can help you establish the right transition for your landscape. Bright colors, such as oranges, tend to advance and make objects seem closer to you, while cool colors like blues move away and can create a sense of distance. Using these colors in conjunction with each other can make your garden feel balanced and organized.

Adding walkways, steps, and other landscape stairways to your property can also be a great way to add a visual transition. This can help define the areas of your garden and make them more accessible for you and your guests. We often recommend the installation of lighting along these walkways, which not only helps guide your guests to the correct areas of the garden but can also illuminate the surrounding plants and trees for a more beautiful effect.

Plumbing 101


Plumbing Clearwater Florida is the practice of repairing, installing, and maintaining pipes, fixtures, and appliances for water supply and cooling. The job also includes ensuring that all work is done safely and according to local and national regulations.Plumbing

Online plumbing courses give students the freedom to explore the trade and decide if it is right for them without having to leave their current employment. Many of these courses offer a money-back guarantee within a certain period of time.

Pipes are the backbone of your plumbing system, carrying water and waste to and from your appliances. They’re also responsible for connecting your home to city water and sewer systems or to wells and septic tanks for rural homes. Whether your pipes are made of copper, plastic (including PEX), or steel, proper maintenance is the key to keeping them in good condition.

Unlike the hoses that carry water in and out of your house, pipes are usually permanent fixtures in your home. They’re often made of either metal or plastic and come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colors.

Most residential plumbing pipes are now constructed from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), with the exception of some older galvanized steel and cast iron pipes. PVC pipes are known for being lightweight and resistant to blockage. They’re also easy to cut and join, allowing for quick fixes in the event of a leak or broken pipe.

Another common type of pipe is PEX, or cross-linked polyethylene. It’s similar to PVC in that it’s flexible and durable, but it has the added benefit of being resistant to extreme temperatures. PEX is also gaining popularity among plumbers and homeowners because it’s more affordable than copper pipes and offers comparable performance.

For more specialized applications, there’s also stoneware pipe. This type of pipe is manufactured in the ceramic industry by burning soft soil at high temperatures and can be produced in long lengths to reduce installation time. While it’s less common, stoneware pipe is highly effective when used in drains and vents because it can withstand high pressures.

Most piping is joined together using fasteners, such as stud bolts and nuts. These fasteners are usually installed into concrete or masonry, but they’re also sometimes used with drywall and other types of construction materials. In some cases, pipes are welded together rather than connected by screwed or flanged joints. This option offers more flexibility when it comes to design, but it can be less reliable than other types of joining methods. It’s also difficult to insulate welded pipes. Pipes can be fitted with a wide variety of fittings to create unique configurations. Some of the most common fittings include close nipples (which are threaded for an entire length), couplings, tees, and crosses.


Pipe fittings are connectors or joints in a plumbing system that help change the direction of flow, increase or decrease the pipe size, or connect other components like valves and drains. They come in a variety of designs and materials, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), and copper. Most of them require gluing or soldering to join together, but some, such as the compression fittings, feature a ring in the middle that tightens around the pipe for a secure seal without the need for glue or smoldering.

Couplings are the most common type of pipe fitting in a plumbing system, and they come in two formats: regular couplings and slip couplings. A slip coupling has a male end and a female end that fit snugly into one another for assembly. A regular coupling has a small ridge or stop internally to prevent over-insertion of the other pipe segment, and it’s used for connecting pipes with the same diameter.

Elbows are also very common, and they come in a number of different angles to facilitate different types of pipe connections. Street elbows are a basic elbow shape that’s usually used for water supply lines, while long-sweep elbows have a more rounded angle that helps reduce turbulence and minimize deposition of entrained solids.

Other common pipe fittings include tee fittings, eccentric reducers, and unions. A tee fitting, for example, has two inlets and is shaped like the letter T. Eccentric reducers, on the other hand, have a single outlet that’s offset from the center of the fitting.

A double-tapped bushing, often shortened to “bushing,” is similar to a reducer in that it connects two pipes with the same diameter but has threads on both of its sides. A close nipple is another type of fitting that has continuous, uninterrupted threading and can be used with a wide range of pipe sizes.

Lastly, there are plugs and caps that are used to cover the ends of pipe at dead ends or at future connection points. They’re generally made of a durable material such as ABS plastic or cast iron and can be secured with a wrench. When assembling any type of pipe fitting, it’s important to follow the manufacturer’s directions for cleaners, primers, and cements.


Valves are mechanical devices that control the flow of liquids and gases through pipes. They are a necessary part of any plumbing system and come in a variety of styles and designs, each meant to serve a specific purpose. They are available in a variety of materials, including plastic, lead-free brass, cast iron, and stainless steel. They are designed to withstand extreme temperatures and pressure changes, as well as high-velocity fluid flows.

One of the most important parts of a valve is its disc, which is constructed of strong and long-lasting materials to ensure it can withstand the high water pressure that is common in most underground systems. It is located on the base of the valve, where it can be accessed by a handle or lever. The valve’s seat is also a critical component, as it helps regulate the flow of water through the valve. If the valve’s seat is not correctly installed, it can lead to leakage or even complete failure of the entire valve.

Other parts of a valve include the gland packing, which is used to compress the packing material around the stem and seal it against the pressure and temperature changes within the system. It is also important that the valve’s body and flanges are made from a durable material, such as brass or stainless steel, which will help protect them against corrosion and other damage.

The last essential part of a valve is the handle, which allows the user to operate the valve and determine whether it is open or closed. This can be done by turning the handle in a clockwise direction to open it and counterclockwise to close it. Some valves may also be actuated with a button, which can be pushed or pulled to turn the valve on and off.

A valve’s operation can be affected by a variety of factors, such as erosion of the disc or seat surfaces, clogging, or improper sealing. To minimize this, it is important to use the right valve for the job and to maintain it properly by using the proper lubricants.


A system of pipes and fixtures for carrying water and sewage in a house or other building It may also be referred to as the “sanitary drainage system” or “building drain.”

A plumbing drainage system is an important part of your home’s structure and must be working correctly in order to prevent leaking pipes, bad smells, and even serious damage to your property. Knowing what plumbing drainage is and how it works can help you keep your home’s water supply free from contaminants and avoid common problems such as clogged drains, leaky pipes, and low water pressure.

When you flush a toilet or run water into a sink, bath, or shower, the drains carry the wastewater away from those fixtures to the sewer system. The sanitary drainage system is responsible for disposing of waste from the household, such as food scraps, cigarette butts, and other items that can cause foul odors. It is generally separate from the stormwater drainage system that carries water runoff from gutters, downspouts, and other surfaces.

The main drain pipe that carries waste water from all household drains is known as the house drain, building drain, or sanitary drain pipe. It is usually installed in the floor of the lowest level of a home and runs horizontally with a slight slope to the municipal sewer line or the septic tank.

After a fixture drains, there is often a curved pipe (also known as a P-trap) that holds standing water inside and therefore keeps sewage gases from rising up into the home. This is a necessary safety feature that all household drains should have.

When a drain becomes blocked with soap scum, hair strands, or other debris, it is called a “clog.” Most clogs are caused by inappropriate items being flushed down the drain, such as food particles from a kitchen sink without a garbage disposal or cigarette butts from a bathroom sink. Over time, these items can build up and block the entire pipe. Other common clogs are caused by shower drains that are not properly screened or by toilets that are not flushed completely.